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Music See All. Look Up, Child Lauren Daigle. Lauren Daigle. Elvis Presley. Si Andrea Bocelli. This was the largest terrorist act before September 11, , with the majority of the victims being Canadian citizens. Mulroney sent a letter of condolence to then Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi , which sparked an uproar in Canada since he did not call families of the actual victims to offer condolences. Gandhi replied that he should be the one providing condolences to Mulroney, given that the majority of victims were Canadian or lived in Canada. Many Indo-Canadians considered this to be a racist act because they felt Mulroney did not consider them to be true Canadian citizens as they were not of European descent.

Questions remain as to why these warnings were not taken more seriously and whether the events leading to the bombing could have been prevented. His report was completed and released on 17 June Mulroney's government opposed the apartheid regime in South Africa and he met with many of the regime's opposition leaders throughout his tenure.

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His position put him at odds with the American and British governments, but also won him respect elsewhere. Also, external affairs minister Joe Clark was the first foreign affairs minister to land in previously isolated Ethiopia to lead the Western response to the — famine in that country ; Clark landed in Addis Ababa so quickly he had not even seen the CBC report that had created the initial and strong public reaction. Canada's response was overwhelming and led the U. The Mulroney government also took a strong stand against the U.

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During his tenure as prime minister, Brian Mulroney's close relationship with U. President Ronald Reagan helped secure a landmark treaty on acid rain and the ratification of a free-trade treaty with the United States under which all tariffs between the two countries would be eliminated by Critics noted that Mulroney had originally professed opposition to free trade during the leadership campaign.

With the Liberals gaining the initial momentum, a successful counterattack by Allan Gregg resulted in the PCs being re-elected with a solid but reduced majority and 43 percent of the popular vote. In addition,the trade deal gain the support of future Quebec Premier s Jacques Parizeau and Bernard Landry , which helped Mulroney to maintain their standing in Quebec. In this election, Mulroney transferred to another eastern Quebec seat, Charlevoix , after an electoral redistribution saw its boundary shift to include Baie-Comeau.

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Although most Canadians voted for parties opposed to free trade, the Tories were returned with a majority government, and implemented the deal. Mulroney's second term was marked by an economic recession. When it was introduced in , it replaced the Manufacturers' Sales Tax MST that had previously been applied at the wholesale level on goods manufactured in Canada.

Mulroney had to use Section 26 the Deadlock Clause , a little known Constitutional provision, allowing him in an emergency situation to ask the Queen to appoint 8 new Senators.

Brian Mulroney - Wikipedia

Although the government argued that the tax was not a tax increase, but a tax shift, the highly visible nature of the tax was extremely unpopular, and many resented Mulroney's use of an "emergency" clause in the constitution. The Meech Lake Accord also met its doom in It was not ratified by the provincial governments of Manitoba and Newfoundland before the June ratification deadline.

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This failure sparked a revival of Quebec separatism , [36] and led to another round of meetings in Charlottetown in and These negotiations culminated in the Charlottetown Accord , which outlined extensive changes to the constitution, including recognition of Quebec as a distinct society. However, the agreement was overwhelmingly defeated in a national referendum in October On December 2, , Canada became the first Western nation to recognize Ukraine as an independent country, next day after the landslide referendum in favor of independence in Ukraine.

The worldwide recession of the early s significantly damaged the government's financial situation. Mulroney's inability to improve the government's finances, as well as his use of tax increases to deal with it, were major factors in alienating the western conservative portion of his power base — this contrasted with his tax cuts earlier as part of his 'pro-business' plan which had increased the deficit. At the same time, the Bank of Canada began to raise interest rates in order to meet a zero inflation target; the experiment was regarded as a failure that exacerbated the effect of the recession in Canada.

Mulroney supported the United Nations coalition during the Gulf War and when the UN authorized full use of force in the operation, Canada sent a CF squadron with support personnel and a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war as well as a company of The Royal Canadian Regiment to safeguard these ground elements calling Canada's participation Operation Friction. When the air war began, Canada's planes were integrated into the coalition force and provided air cover and attacked ground targets.

This was the first time since the fighting on Cyprus in that Canadian forces participated directly in combat operations. For the Canadian Forces , the Mulroney years began with hope but ended with disappointment. Most members of the CF welcomed the return to distinctive uniforms for the three services, replacing the single green uniform worn since unification — A White Paper proposed boosting the CF's combat capability, which had, according to Canadian Defence Quarterly, declined so badly that Canada would have been unable to send a brigade to the Gulf War had it desired to.

The CF in this period did undergo a much-needed modernization of a range of equipment from trucks to a new family of small arms.

Many proposed reforms, however, failed to occur, and according to historian J. Granatstein , Mulroney "raised the military's hopes repeatedly, but failed to deliver. According to Granatstein, this meant that Canada was not able to live up to its post-Cold War military commitments. The decline of cod stocks in Atlantic Canada led the Mulroney government to impose a moratorium on the cod fishery there, putting an end to a large portion of the Newfoundland fishing industry, and causing serious economic hardship. The government instituted various programmes designed to mitigate these effects but still became deeply unpopular in the Atlantic provinces.

The environment was a key focus of Mulroney's government, as Canada became the first industrialized country to ratify both the biodiversity convention and the climate change convention agreed to at the UN Conference on the Environment. In , Frank magazine ran a satirical advertisement for a contest inviting young Tories to "Deflower Caroline Mulroney". Her father was incensed and threatened physical harm toward those responsible before joining several women's groups in denouncing the ad as an incitement to rape on national television. Frank's editor Michael Bate , called the spoof, intended to mock her unpopular father for bringing her to public adult oriented events, "clumsy" but had no regrets.

Bate also shared sympathy towards her father's reaction over the spoof.

1. Greater affluence

Widespread public resentment of the Goods and Services Tax , an economic slump, the fracturing of his political coalition, and his lack of results regarding the Quebec situation caused Mulroney's popularity to decline considerably during his second term.

An ominous sign was a by-election in the Alberta riding of Beaver River. In this election, called when Tory MP John Dahmer died before ever having a chance to attend a sitting, Reform Party candidate Deborah Grey won by a hefty 4, votes after finishing fourth in the general election just five months earlier. This was perhaps, the first sign that Mulroney's grand coalition was fracturing; the PCs had dominated Alberta's federal politics since the election.

Brian Mulroney

Another sign came before Meech Lake was finalized, when Bouchard resigned from both the cabinet and the party over changes to the proposal that he felt diluted its spirit. Years later, Mulroney said that his biggest error as Prime Minister had been trusting his former university friend; indeed, he and Bouchard have not spoken to each other in over two decades.

Mulroney entered facing a statutory general election under Canadian law, federal governments can have a maximum duration of five years, but they often have lesser duration as they must enjoy the confidence of the House of Commons in order to continue in office. In his final days in office, Mulroney made several decisions that hampered the Tory campaign later that year.

He took a lavish international "farewell" tour [43] mostly at taxpayers' expense, without transacting any official business. Also, by the time he handed power to Campbell, there were only two-and-a-half months left in the Tories' five-year mandate. Further compounding the problem, Mulroney continued to live at 24 Sussex Drive for some time after Campbell was sworn in as Prime Minister. Brian and Mila Mulroney's new private residence in Montreal was undergoing renovations, and they did not move out of 24 Sussex until their new home was ready.

The election was a disaster for the Tories. The oldest party in Canada was reduced from a majority with seats to two seats in the worst defeat ever suffered for a governing party at the federal level.